Bonneville Environmental Foundation (2011)
Recommendations and Gaps for End-Use Energy Storage and Renewable Integration in the Pacific Northwest.

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EQL Energy provided recommendations for policy and programs to support the use of demand response to contribute to the integration of variable energy resources.  Recommendations highlighted 1) cost effectiveness for AutoDR Cold Storage and flexible loads, e.g., other food processing, water pumping, irrigation, and commercial HVAC, 2) DR assets providing multiple benefits at different times of year, i.e., peak reduction in winter and summer (distribution utility), and balancing reserves (BPA) in spring when excess hydro reduces balancing reserves, 3) targeting locations based on transmission and distribution upgrade deferrals. Gaps identified include, 1) Timely Conservation Voltage Reduction competes with demand response, 2) pricing and stochastic analysis for capacity and balancing reserves in the PNW, and 3) need to engage distribution utilities in demand response program development and benefits.